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Tien Yin Wong, Anoop Shankar, Ronald Klein, Barbara E K Klein, and Larry D Hubbard

Prospective cohort study of retinal vessel diameters and risk of hypertension
BMJ 2004; 329: 79 [Abstract] [Full text]

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[Read Rapid Response]Re: Emperor's new clothes?

Dr Sydney J. Bush PhD., DOpt. (IOSc. London)   (26 November 2004)


23 July 2004

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Sydney J Bush,
Optometrist. CardioRetinometrist
20-22 Brook St. HULL HU2 8LA

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Re: CardioRetinometry

As a contact lens pratitioner I was in the unique position in 1998 of using the first of the electronic fundus cameras in a practice routinely dispensing sodium ascorbate for (a) reduction of infection risk - mainly Post- Adnoviral Keratitis (PVK) (b) allergy seen as Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis (GPC) and (c) diabetic complications, all in a patient base returning unusually except in contact lens practise, for 6 monthly eye examinations. Diabetic need for extra vitamin C is little dealt with in textbooks of management of diabetics (Cheraskin E - Vitamin C Who needs it? Pub 1993.) (1)

Although the fundi were not imaged at every visit it had become obvious from anterior segment examinations that scurvy (any state in which supplemental vitamin C improves the pericorneal vasculature) was leading to reductions of vessel lumen, congestion and hyperaemia in almost every case. Microaneurysms and incipient microaneurysms were gradually eliminated as dosages increased. It was judged that over 90% of patients could be improved but some needed over 10,000mgs/day supplemented with vitamin E. According to the received wisdom, the physicians consulted by these patients continued to doubt the necessity for such large doses and a degree of friction existed.

Serendipitously, two years later, when comparing optic disc images to detect primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in the procedure I had earlier named Sequential Photometric Overlays Alerting Glaucoma (SPOAG)in 'Optometry Today'it was noticed that those patients taking supplemental ascorbate were showing reductions of retinal arterial cholesterol, typically seen at stressed points e.g. bifurcations.

CardioRetinometry appears to confirm the original work by Paterson (1939/40) and later, Willis & Fishman (1955)(2-8) all naming low Vitamin C as being associated with death from Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Pauling/Rath theory (Lipoprotein alpha is a surrogate for vitamin C) appears also to be well confirmed (9-14)

It was decided to research this and a company was formed (AntiCoronary Clinics (UK) Ltd) both to explore the possibilities of a study aided by local physicians and to determine if it could be financially viable as no grant could be anticipated from competing sources of funding especially as the method apppeared to have advantages over electron beam tomography (EBT) and angiography. The method appeared to be demonstrating more atheroma than EBT and it is confidently anticipated that CardioRetinometry will prove to be a better surrogate outcome predictor of reduced CHD risk than any current diagnostic procedure.

CardioRetinometry has already also demonstrated reductions of cholesterol in the retinal venules and it is believed by the author that cholesterol in the firt post capillary venules and veins, deposited against the current received wisdom, is the precursor of arterioscleosis and essential hypertension.

A research grant application is now in the pipeline.

Sydney J Bush PhD. DOpt. (IOSc London)

References and End Notes:

1.) Cheraskin E MD. DMD. - Vitamin C Who needs it? Pub Arlington 1993. Five textbooks on diabetic management fail to mention vitamin C.p98.



4.) J. C. Paterson (1941) Canad. M. A. J., Feb 1941, Pg 114-120

5.) G.C. Willis, An Experimental Stdy of the Intimal Ground Substance in Atherosclerosis, Canad. M. A. J. Vol 69, 1953, p. 17-22

6.) G. C. Willis, A. W. Light, W.S. Cow, Serial Arteriography in Atherosclerosis Canad. M. A. J. Dec 1954, Vol 71, 1954, p. 562-568

7.) G. C. Willis, S. Fishman, Ascorbic Acid Content of Human Arterial Tissue. Canad. M. A. J., April 1, 1955, Vol 72, Pg 500-503

8.) G.C. Willis, The Reversibility of Atherosclerosis, Canad. M. A. J., July 15, 1957, Vol 77., Pg 106-109

9.) Pauling L. Rath M. Hypothesis: Lipoprotein(a) is a surrogate for ascorbate.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(16):6204-7Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Cardiologist Matthias Rath. M.D.) Joint worker with Linus Pauling co- writer of Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease Leading the Way to the Abolition of This Disease as a Cause of Human Mortality. J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 7:5-15 (1992a)

10.)Rath M. Pauling L. Solution to the Puzzle of Human Cardiovascular Disease: Its Primary Cause is Ascorbate Deficiency Leading to the Deposition of Lipoprotein Alpha and Fibrinogen/Fibrin in the Vascular Wall. J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 6:125-34(1991a)

10.) Rath M. Pauling L. Apoprotein(a) is an Adhesive Protein. J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 6:139-43(1991b)

11.) Rath M. Pailing L. Plasma Induced Proteolysis and the Role of Lipoprotein alpha, Lysine and Synthetic Lysine Analogues J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 7:17-23(1992b)

12.) Rath M. Lipoprotein alpha Reduction by Ascorbate. J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 7:81-82(1992c)

13.) Rath M. Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease with Nutritional Supplements. J. of Orthomolecular Medicine 7:153-62(1992e)

14.) Rath M. Cationic-anionic and Anionic-cationic Oligopeptides in Apoprotein(a) and Other Proteins as Modulators of Protein Action and of Biological Communication. J. of Applied Nutrition 44:62-9(1992f)

Competing interests: AntiCoronary Clinics (UK) Ltd. 20-22 Brook St. Hull HU2 8LA







Re: Emperor's new clothes?

26 November 2004


Dr Sydney J. Bush PhD., DOpt. (IOSc. London),
Consultant in CardioRetinometry
AntiCoronary Clinics (
UK) Ltd 20-22 Brook St. HULL HU2 8LA

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Re: Re: Emperor's new clothes?

I have to agree with Dr Clarke at my old medical school, but my excuse is that I considered it so obvious that the images had been transposed that it was unworthy of comment.

As to lack of ability to differentiate between retinal arterioles and venules I must agree that the difference should be apparent to anyone with 6/60 in this case.

What I find noteworthy however is the degree of retinal atheroma in these images which has passed without comment. The non-surgical reversal of such atheroma by nutritional prophylactic cardioretinometry (NPCRet) is not difficult. I should also anticipate some improvements and restoration of the lumen in such cases with NPCRet.

In my letter of 23rd July I redefined scurvy as "Any state in which supplementary vitamin C improves the pericorneal vasculature." and this has passed without challenge. I should hasten to add that because scurvy exists in two forms, ephemeral and - more difficult to spot - chronic subclinical, this definition only applies to the most obvious which is the ephemeral form. Approximately ninety free radical diseases are now thought to be rooted in Chronic Subclinical Scurvy although Denham Harman, whose modesty is inversely proportional to the importance of his so fundamental free radical theory, never made a great point of this after fathering the Free Radical Theory of Aging and Disease an astonishing fifty years ago this month. Indeed, that he is still waiting for a Nobel Prize is most curious.

Because it is so difficult to diagnose, chronic subclinical scurvy is perhaps, best defined as "That state in which retinal atheroma can be proven by sequential imaging to be improved by Nutritional Prophylactic CardioRetinometry (NPCRet)."

I have not carried out any serious veterinary ophthalmological research but would welcome comments on the relative state of the retinal vessels in animals that, perhaps, like the goat, are said to produce up to 100 grams of vitamin C endogenously/day. I doubt there is any cholesterol visible in their arteries until they become old and feeble. The mouse eye is frustratingly small as a model that, tantalisingly, produces up to 20 grams/day in 70Kg terms. This animal would be interesting for it produces so much ascorbate as to be immune to the Sterne strain of respiratory anthrax.

As I stated in July; Chronic Unbalanced Circadian Atheroma is advanced as the principal aetiological factor in coronary heart disease. It is diagnosable from the retinal atheroma and any subject in the Wong presentation to whom the fundii belong, would be very suitable for NPCRet in its therapeutic form. Such cases (and I have many hundreds of such images) often belong to people with low to normal cholesterol levels for whom statins are irrelevant. Sadly, my invitations to their medical practitioners to cooperate in NPCRet are largely ignored.

Competing interests: AntiCoronary Clinics (UK) Ltd







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